Fossil fuel emissions

Fossil Fuel Emissions

Emissions data for years 2015, 2016 and 2017 are preliminary.

Cite as: Boden et al. (2017), UNFCCC (2018), BP (2018)

CDIAC: Boden, TA, Marland, G and Andres, RJ 2017. Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., USA. DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/00001_V2017.
Available at:
UNFCCC, 2018. National Inventory Submissions 2018. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Available at:; accessed June 2018.
BP, 2018. Statistical Review of World Energy. Available at:


The 1959-2014 estimates for fossil fuels and industry are from Boden et al. (2017).

Where available (42 countries) the national estimates reported to the UNFCCC (2018) during 1990-2016 are used instead of CDIAC data.

The 2015, 2016 and 2017 estimates (or just 2017 where UNFCCC data are available) are preliminary and based on energy statistics published by BP (2018).


Cement emissions

Updated from Andrew, R., 2018. Global CO2 emissions from cement production. Earth System Science Data, 10, 195-217. DOI: 10.5194/essd-10-195-2018. Available at:


Consumption-based Fossil Fuel Emissions

Cite as: Updated from Peters et al. (2011) and Peters et al. (2012)

Peters, GP, Minx, JC, Weber L, and Edenhofer, O. 2011. Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1006388108. Available at:

For an explanation of issues around consumption emissions, see:

Peters, GP, Davis, SJ and Andrew, R. 2012. A synthesis of carbon in international trade. Biogeosciences, 9, 3247-3276. DOI: 10.5194/bg-9-3247-2012. Available at:

The use of data is conditional on citing the original data sources.


Land-Use Change Emissions

Cite as: Updated from Houghton et al. (2012), Hansis et al. (2015)

Houghton, R.A., House, J.I., Pongratz, J., van der Werf, G.R., DeFries, R.S., Hansen, M.C., Le Quéré, C., and Ramankutty, N. 2012. Chapter G2 Carbon emissions from land use and land-cover change, Biogeosciences. DOI: 10.5194/bg-9-5125-2012. Available at:

Hansis, E., Davis, S.J., Pongratz, J., 2015. Relevance of methodological choices for accounting of land use change carbon fluxes. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2014GB004997. DOI: 10.1002/2014GB004997. Available at:

The use of data is conditional on citing the original data sources. Data for years 2015, 2016 and 2017 are preliminary.


Gross Domestic Product

GDP: IEA/OECD 2017. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Highlights 2017. Available at:


UN, 2017. World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision. United Nations Population Division. Available at:

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